Brazilian Modernism: Furniture Design in Brazil – Part #2

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continues from Part # 1

Considered one of the founding fathers of Brazilian design, Sergio Rodrigues, is still producing some of his best known designs. The roots of Rodrigues’ work lies in his use of traditional raw materials such as jacaranda, eucalyptus, peroba and imbuia woods to create icons of Brazilian taste, value and identity. His most famous design is his “Poltrona Molé”; his furniture was utilized in a large scale for Oscar Niemeyer´s iconic buildings of Brasilia. In 2001 the Brazilian manufacturer LinBrasil acquired the rights for the reproduction of the “Sergio Rodrigues furniture line” and meanwhile produces 28 of Rodrigues’ works.

Italian born Lina Bo Bardi began her career in Milan under Gio Ponti, she was a prolific architect and designer who devoted her working life, most of it spent in Brazil, to promoting the social and cultural potential of architecture and design. She would pioneer in the use of laminated and compensated wood, at a time the use of massive logs prevailed. However, bent tubular metal would be the main component of Lina’s most notable creations, which include the Tripé chair (1948), the Bola chair (1950), and her famous Bowl chair (1951). These chair designs would be used for the furnishing of one of Brazil’s architectural masterworks, designed and erected by Lina in 1951: the Casa de Vidro, the couple’s residence in Sao Paulo’s Morumbi neighborhood. Nowadays, Brazilian furniture company ETEL is launching a new series of 12 re-issues on Lina Bo Bardi´s work; and Italian chair manufacturer ARPER has released a limited-edition of 500 chairs of Bo Bardi’s charming Bowl chair.

Cadeira Tripé designed by Lina Bo Bardi (1948)

Lina Bo Bardi´s Poltrona Bola (1950)

Lina Bo Bardi Cadeira Auditório MASP

Bardi Bowl Chair (1951)

José Zanine Caldas is known as the “Master of the Wood” due to his knowledge and passion for solid wood as a material, he was possibly the first to utilize the tropical hardwoods in their most raw and pure state. Austrian born designer Martin Eisler, after meeting the Hauner brothers in Brazil, started designing for FORMA. Eisler also opened Forma in Buenos Aires, as an architectural, industrial and interior design firm known as Interieur Forma. Eisler´s  “Poltrona Costela” is his best known design.

There were also other mid-century Brazilian furniture designers like Ricardo Fasanello working with more innovative materials. Fasanello’s work blends unmistakable Brazilian aesthetics with a cool sophistication. His studio developed into a sort of design laboratory for experimenting with a wide range of materials. Steel, glass, resin, fiberglass, leather and wood were all explored to make beautiful and functional objects. He was inspired by mathematical shapes of curves, circles and spheres, which recalled his penchant for automobiles and speed. The “Fardos” Sofa was his first international success.

Moving on to contemporary names in Brazilian furniture design, we have Hugo Franca, a Brazilian designer who works in the same tradition as modernist Brazilian masters; Hugo is best known for his reverential use of raw Brazilian hardwoods. Working exclusively with fallen and dead trees and old canoes he purchases from the Pataxó Indian tribes in Bahia, França creates unique designs that showcase the beauty of these natural materials. Another outstanding young Brazilian designer is Julia Krantz: Julia is part of an emerging generation embracing and redefining the sense of “Brazilianess” that has long shaped their country’s art and design. Her furniture is carved from stack-laminated plywood, crafted in sensuous, organic and monumental pieces, inspired by the rich landscape of her native Brazil. In her work, ecology plays a fundamental role. She has a commitment to only using materials obtained through sustainable management and refusing to employ endangered species.

Historically Brazil ranks among the world’s 10 largest furniture manufactures and produces today an astounding variety of modern architecture and furniture, only partially known. Design and production are concentrated in the country´s southern states, perhaps not coincidentally, as they have large Italian immigrant populations dating from the 19th century. A strong tradition of craftsmanship and a national love of modernism combined with a wealth of resources, a relatively weak local currency and an unfaltering Euro, set the stage for Brazilian designer-manufactures to become important players in the world of high-profile furniture design. European furniture companies EDRA and Vitra have given Brazilian design in general and the Campana Brothers in particular an international profile. Fernando and Humberto Campana were first noticed by the media in the late 1990’s when they became the first Brazilian artists to exhibit their work at The Museum of Modern Art in New York; their breakout design of the “Vermelha Chair” is still their best seller.

Now that you have finished reading my posts about modernist furniture design in Brazil, I would like you to revisit some of Don S. Shoemaker´s design lines (in particular his famous “Descanso Line”, the Perno´s chair and his iconic Sling Casuals Line) in order to be able to clearly differentiate Don’s work from the top furniture designers just discussed above. Why? Because several of Don´s furniture pieces have been mistaken for 1960’s Brazilian designs…

We could definitely establish some parallelism between Don and his Brazilian counterparts:

  • Brazilian rosewood species (Bahia Rosewood, Jacarandá da Bahia, Rio Rosewood, Jacarandá De Brasil, Pianowood, Caviuna or Obuina) belong to the same genus “Dalbergia” (native in the Americas to the tropical regions of Mexico, Central and South America); Don used Mexican rosewood varieties (mainly cocobolo, granadilla, gaiac, cueramo, etc.) to produce his furniture pieces, while his Brazilian counter parts used hardwoods from similar species available in their country.
  • Don essentially utilized leather in his furniture designs, as Brazilian furniture designers did during the same period of time.

If there was any kind of connection between Don and the Brazilian modernist movement is hard to say, since Don began working on his first furniture designs in the 1950’s to finally introduce them in the year 1960.

The Mexican modernist movement developed in a different way and I will write a separate chapter on this.

 

Copyright © 2010-2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

Brazilian Modernism: Furniture Design in Brazil – Part #1

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When Le Corbusier visited Rio de Janeiro for the first time in 1929, his impression was that Brazil was a fascinating country but rather provincial. Although he gave a few lectures, these were reserved for a privileged, highly educated circle that was able to follow his talks in French. Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer were among these few; they would later come to define “Brazilian Modernism”. Both, Niemeyer and Costa made a stunning entrance with the “Brazilian Pavilion” at New York World’s Fair in 1939, followed in 1943 by the ‘Brazil Builds’ exhibition at the MOMA and later on, with a touring exhibition of the same name in Europe.

Today Oscar Niemeyer is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. Niemeyer’s architecture serves as the singular visual reference for Brazilian modernism worldwide, with the most iconic example being his full-scale design of the capital city, Brasilia. Much like his architecture, Niemeyer’s furniture designs were meant to evoke the beauty of Brazil: the exceptional local craftsmanship, the sweeping organic curves imitating the female form and the hills of Rio de Janeiro, and the use of rich native materials like leather and Brazilian hardwoods. Oscar Niemeyer´s “Rio Chaise Lounge” is his most famed furniture design and embodies all that is Brazil.

Joaquim Tenreiro, Sergio Rodrigues, Jorge Zalszupin, Percival Lafer, Jean Gillon and Michel Arnoult are the pioneers of the Brazilian Modernist movement. Using natural resources, tropical hardwoods, cane and understanding the need for comfort and beauty, these architects and designers produced furniture for everyone. Lafer and Arnoult were at the forefront of Ready-to-Assemble furniture that was made of solid hardwoods, like Goncalo-Alves (Tiger wood) which resembles Jacaranda (Brazilian rosewood) and utilized leather upholstery. Below I have put together a brief portrait of the most influential Brazilian furniture designers that have contributed to Modernism in Brazil:

Rumanian born Jean Gillon moved to Brazil in 1956, where he developed simultaneously projects on interior architecture, fine arts and design. He projected luxury hotels throughout Brazil as well as stores and homes and he was a remarkable creator of tapestries – usually one-of-a-kind pieces elaborated with different techniques, based on gouache drawings. Gillon started to design furniture due to his architecture clients demands and, in 1961, he founded his first company, Fábrica de Móveis Cidam, later followed by WoodArt, in which he produced full lines of Brazilian rosewood furniture pieces and objects, using leather as well as upholstery. As a visionary businessman, he turned to exports and at one point he worked with 22 different countries. He collaborated with MTM Indústria de Móveis Village, Italma, and Probel, which produced his designs. His most famous design is his “Cadeira Jangada” Chair and Ottoman, also called ‘Captain’s Chair’.

French born Michel Arnoult is recognized as one of the fathers of the Ready-To-Assemble furniture (RTA) and the flat-packaging. He arrived in Brazil in the early 1950’s and made friend with modern architect Oscar Niemeyer and painter Cândido Portinari. At this time, modern architecture and its applications in the field of social housing reach their peak and Arnoult realizes that there is no suitable furniture for the smallest dimensions of these new interiors. He decides to design simple furniture and focuses its researches on the concept of RTA furniture. Arnoult becomes the first businessman of RTA furniture in Brazil and sets up in 1952 his company “Mobilia Cotemporânea” in Curitiba. This company was one of the very first companies in the world to be devoted exclusively to RTA furniture design and manufacture. It was the premises of the current Cash & Carry. One of the best examples of this concept is his armchair “Peg Lev” literally “I take and I carry”.

MichelArnoultPegLevChair(1968)

Percival Lafer took over his father’s furniture company The Lafer Co., founded in 1927. The factory was named “Lafer MP”, the initials MP meaning “Moveis Patenteados”, Portuguese for Patented Furniture. The Lafer Co. has become synonymous with high design, often employing some of Brazil’s most famous designers and architects to create furniture pieces. Percival Lafer dedicates most of his time working on new products.

Graceful lines, strong use of local woods and a combination of impeccable woodworking and classical detailing mark Jorge Zalszupin’s furniture. Polish born Zalzsupin founded the design collective “L’Atelier” in 1959, which would become one of the most important furniture companies in Brazil. Starting as a small workshop where Jorge had brought together a team of highly-skilled craftsmen, L’Atelier soon turned into a power house, a direct competitor to Sergio Rodrigues’ Oca, with 300 employees at the end of the 1960’s and outlets all across the country – and even in the US. Zalszupin’s pioneering use of plywood and chromed metal became the signature of L’Atelier furniture, but the company also had an important role in the introduction on the Brazilian market of injection-molded plastic objects – L’Atelier was the licensee for Robin Day’s Hille chair. In the early 1980’s, Zalszupin left L’Atelier in order to devote himself to architecture.

 

Portuguese born furniture designer Joaquim Tenreiro took a different approach by creating furniture that was an exercise in lightness. His furniture designs all made use of the indigenous Brazilian woods that are known for not only their beauty, but also their strength. With the help of his major client, architect Oscar Niemeyer, he was able to experiment on his ideas to create furniture that was “formally light”, a lightness which had nothing to do with weight itself, but with graciousness and the functionality of spaces. His exquisitely crafted pieces evoke a refined coexistence of traditional values and modern aesthetics, strongly bound to the Brazilian cultural milieu. With an unparalleled acuity for form, scale, detailing and craftsmanship he helped steer his generation of designers away from copies of traditional European furniture to a “new look” that embraced Brazilian culture and emerging modern preferences. In spite of his success and his professional recognition, sometime in the late 1960’s Tenreiro decided to close up his shops – retail and manufacturing. The Father of the Brazilian Modernist Design Movement had decided to concentrate on his painting and sculpture – activities in which he had been engaged privately for many decades.

Architect of Italian origin Giuseppe Scapinelli ran a furniture shop in Sao Paolo in the 1950’s, from which he sold his own designs. Opposite to Tenreiro, Sergio Rodrigues and Zanine Caldas, he remained rather anonymous for many years; he made his first appearance in the “Brazilian Modern” exhibition at the Oscar Niemeyer Museum in Curitiba, in 2010. His style is characterized by curvy lines and soft shapes, very much away from the mainstream designs of his fellow retailers. Scapinelli was rediscovered and is now a synonym of boldness, sophistication and quality in Brazilian furniture in 1950´s and 1960´s.

….to be continued in Part # 2

Copyright © 2010-2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

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